Zeroing in on ZETs

January 2024 Update

The fourth publication in CALSTART’s Zeroing in on Zero-Emission Trucks series, this update highlights the continued increase in medium- and heavy-duty (MHD) zero-emission truck (ZET) deployments in the United States. Providing a concise and current snapshot of the dynamic U.S. MHD truck market (Class 2b–8), it presents deployment statistics for ZETs and characterizes the existing U.S. MHD truck market as of June 2023. This analysis offers insights into key trends driving growth in this market, as well as opportunities to further accelerate this growth that can help inform policymakers, original equipment manufacturers, and fleet owners. Some key findings include the following: 

  • As of June 2023, more than 17,500 ZETs have been deployed in the United States. ZETs have now been deployed in all 50 states. 
  • Electric cargo vans, which have limited market barriers for mass adoption and have received significant investment from large last-mile delivery companies, represent more than 80 percent of these ZET deployments. 
  • Regulations and incentives continue to be significant drivers of ZET adoption. States that had adopted the Advanced Clean Trucks (ACT) regulation as of June 2023 account for 38 percent of all ZET deployments despite making up just 25 percent of all truck registrations. 
  • Observed trends driving growth in the U.S. ZET market include: increased model availability, expansion of regulations to additional geographies, historic levels of funding available, unprecedented investments in charging infrastructure, increased support for small fleets, deployments moving from pilots to scale, more robust battery supply chains, hydrogen fuel cell developments, an increased push from shippers, and moving beyond tailpipe emissions to tackle the full value chain. 
  • Key opportunities to accelerate ZET deployments include building public charging, accelerating utility processes, accelerating adoption of regulations, catalyzing a market for smaller fleets, and developing high-powered charging technology.  
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For inquiries related to the Zeroing in on Zero-Emission Trucks series, please reach out to Jacob Richard ([email protected])
or Jessie Lund (
[email protected]).