Zeroing in on Zero-Emission Buses

Over the past year, transit agencies across the United States and Canada made steady, measurable strides in transitioning their fleets to zero-emission buses (ZEBs), providing cleaner air for communities across both countries. Highlights from this year’s Zeroing in on ZEBs update include:

  • The number of full-size transit ZEBs in the United States has grown to 6,147 as of September 2023.
  • While battery-electric buses still greatly outnumber fuel cell electric buses (FCEBs), the number of FCEBs increased by more than 75 percent, signifying a growing interest in fuel cell technology.
  • California continues its lead as the U.S. state with the most ZEBs adopted, but New York had the largest numerical increase in full-size transit ZEBs in 2023. Many other states, including Illinois, saw notable gains in ZEB adoptions.
  • In 2023, the Federal Transit Administration’s Low and No Emission Program and the Grants for Bus and Bus Facilities Program awarded more than $300 million dollars to U.S. transit agencies to support needed infrastructure for zero-emission projects.
  • As of September 2023, Canada has adopted 976 full-size and small ZEBs, including 79 new full-size ZEBs since 2022.

CALSTART’s annual inventory provides insight on the number of awarded, ordered, delivered, and operational ZEBs within the United States and Canada. This year’s edition reintroduces the number of deployed buses within the total count. Zeroing in on ZEBs is based on data gathered primarily through local, state, and federal award documents; press releases; and author correspondence with state Departments of Transportation and transit agencies. As there is no centralized accounting of ZEBs, and transit agency plans for adoption can shift and/or be delayed, figures contained in the report should not be considered static.

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