Phasing in U.S. Charging Infrastructure

Phasing in U.S. Charging Infrastructure presents a vision and roadmap for how the United States can build out infrastructure to support rapid zero-emission medium- and heavy-duty vehicle (ZE-MHDV) adoption. It features findings from a model and scenario CALSTART developed, showing how to accelerate infrastructure buildout with a targeted, phase-in strategy.

With this phase-in strategy, infrastructure buildout first concentrates on priority launch areas where favorable policy, investment, industry concentration, and grid modernization concentrates. Buildout then grows out from these key hubs to corridors and ultimately into a national network through 2035. This strategy can unleash coordination, cost-effective implementation, grid modernization, and highly leveraged public and private investment.


This fact sheet provides a concise summary of the study’s important findings. It describes the phase-in strategy, the high rates of adoption assumed, and the key factors making up priority launch areas. It also gives an overview of where these priority hubs, corridors, and national network areas are, as well as the benefits of targeting these areas for infrastructure phase-in.

Download the Fact Sheet (2pg PDF)


This briefing paper provides a more in-depth look at the findings of the study, with key details explained and illustrated. It visualizes the phase-in strategy and CALSTART’s modeling of energy needs, plus delves into what makes certain regions priority launch areas to target coordination and investment. It also gives an overview of deployment assumptions and site configurations found in these areas, as well as detail on the benefits of targeting these areas for infrastructure phase-in.

Revised August 22, 2023

Download the Briefing Paper (6pg PDF)


This working paper shows in detail how infrastructure can meet high ZE-MHDV adoption rates through a phase-in strategy. It also explains the analysis and key assumptions underpinning our strategy and brings together real world examples and best practices that demonstrate how the strategy is feasible.

Download the Working Paper (50pg PDF)